What is form?

A poem seeks to do one of two things:

1) Reflect the world, as the poet perceives it.
2) Re-create the world as the poet imagines it to be.

Besides word choice, a poet can use other tools like rhythm, rhyme, and meter to reflect or re-create the world.  In addition, a
poet also uses form as a way to communicate more creatively and more effectively.  Simply put, form is the way the poem is
presented on the page.  It is the physical shape of the poem itself.  An English (Shakespearean) sonnet has a certain shape.  It
is specifically a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme of ababcdcdefefgg.  Every time you decide to
write an English sonnet, it must meet these requirements.  It is the same with a villanelle, a pantoum, a terza rima, a rondeau,
etc.  These forms all have a particular way in which they must be presented on the page.  Free verse poetry also has form,
even though less restrictive than the rhyming forms, but it has form nevertheless because its shape separates it from normal
prose.  As you’ve seen with many poems, the lines are shorter than a regular line of prose that fits across a single line on the
page; various lines may be grouped together followed by a break to form stanzas; and a certain number of stanzas may
comprise the entire poem.  This allows you to break a poem up into sections, which may show a change in thought or idea, or
a change in scenery, or even a change in the direction of the poem.

For example, take this sentence:

Sorry I missed you at noon today because a couple holding hands strolled by me, and they couldn't take their eyes off each
other; when she smiled at him, I could have hit myself over the head with a hammer!

These lines, as is, seem more ordinary than poetic, something you might write on a post-it.  But let’s look at the same lines in
their original form, with title, line breaks, and form.

Sorry I Missed You

    At noon today,
    a couple
    holding hands
    strolled by me.
    They couldn't take
    their eyes off
    each other.
    When she smiled at him —
    I could have hit myself
    over the head
    with a hammer!
Eddie Morales

After reading the same words in a different format, you can see that I wanted to slow your reading, to have you linger over
every detail, picturing not only the couple, the holding of the hands, and the two strolling along, but also the missing girl in the
last stanza, which you know, for whatever reason, the man observing the couple missed an opportunity to be with, and with
whom he missed having a similar couple-moment.

Now, take a moment to write a similar poem.  Write a casual sentence as if you were writing a post-it of your own, or memo,
to a relative, a friend, or a loved one, etc.  Once you're done, break up the sentence or sentences (try for no more than two
sentences) into lines of between two to five words.  Then break up the sentences into stanzas of three to four lines each.  
Also, try several combinations of words per line and lines per stanza to give the poem a different feeling as you emphasize
different thoughts or words.  Usually, the reader gets this feeling from the last word of each line.


Ballad                                                Allegory
Blank verse                                      Cadence
Couplet                                             Epic
Free verse                                       Hyperbaton
Haiku                                                 Litany
Pantoum                                           Stylized language
Prose poem                                     Troubadours
Sonnet (Italian/English)                     Verse Paragraph
Terza rima                                         Vignette

Writing in different forms is good for your writing.  If you take writing in different forms as a challenge or an inspiration,
instead of a hindrance, it can lead you to say things you wouldn't otherwise say in a poem.  Learning poetic forms may
discourage some poets, but those who take the challenge of writing particular forms (ones that require lines of a specific
length, a particular meter, a specific number of stanzas, a specific pattern of rhyme, or a combination of poetic elements) may
find they have acquired some valuable skills.  I believe if you conquer the sonnet, for example, you conquer all forms, because
writing a sonnet and adhering to the requirements of the sonnet, with time and practice, will make you a better writer of
sonnets, and maybe even a writer of perfect sonnets.  With this skill, the other forms would just be variations of what you
already know.

Form is a poet's main tool for organization.  Once you've selected what your "best words in their best order" will be, you can
decide how to arrange them.  Choosing one particular form may help you put yours words into an order that accomplishes
your poetic goals.

Although there are dozens of poetic forms, there are ten major forms (nine of the most significant and timeless forms, and one
that is starting to be seen more often, the pantoum).  As you read the definition of each form, think about how you can use the
form for your own particular needs, or write in the form just to try it out and see what kind of poems you end up with. it
could be fun.  For myself, I want to write in all the forms I can.


The couplet consists of two rhyming lines of poetry, usually of similar length and rhythm.

Nothing could be simpler and easier than two consecutive rhyming lines.  Consider this poem from an unknown author:

I’m a poet,
And I know it.

The English poet Geoffrey Chaucer introduced this versatile form during the fourteenth century in his collection of stories told
in verse, The Canterbury Tales.  Due to its simplicity, the couplet quickly gained popularity.  This form readily lends itself to a
wide range of moods, from the comic to the refined.  Notice how different the two following poems are even though they
both use the couplet form.

From In a Prominent bar in Secaucus One day
In a prominent bar in Secaucus one day
Rose a lady in skunk with a top-heavy sway
Raised a knobby red finger - all turned from their beer -
While with eyes bright as snowcrust she sang high and clear

Now who of you'd think from an eyeload of me
That I once was a lady as proud as can be?
Oh I'd never sit down by a tumble-down drunk
If it wasn't, my dears, for the high cost of junk.

All the gents used to swear that the white of my calf
Beat the down of a swan by a length and a half
In the kerchief of linen I caught to my nose
Ah, there never fell snot, but a little gold rose.

I had seven gold teeth and a toothpick of gold
My Virginia cheroot with a leaf it was rolled
And I'd light it each time with a thousand in cash
Why the bums used to fight if I flicked them an ash

Once the toast of the Biltmore, the belle of the Taft
I would drink bottle beer at the Drake, never draft
And dine at the Astor on Salisbury Steak
With a clean table cloth for each bite I would take

In a car like the roxy, I'd roll to the track
A steel-guitar trio, a bar in the back
And the wheels made no noise, they turned ever so fast
Still it took you ten minutes to see me go past

When the horses bowed down to me that I might choose
I bet on them all for I hated to lose
Now I'm saddled each night for my butter and eggs
And the broken threads race down the backs of my legs

Let you hold in mind girls that your beauty must pass
Like a lovely white clover that rusts with its grass
Keep your bottoms off bar stools and marry your young
Or be left - an old barrel with many a bung

For when time takes you out for a spin in his car
You'll be hard-pressed to stop him from going too far
And be left by the roadside, for all your good deeds
Two toadstools for tits and a face full of weeds

All the house raised a cheer, but the man at the bar
Made a phone call and up pulled a red patrol car
And she blew us a kiss as they copped her away
From that prominent bar in Secaucus NJ
X.J. Kennedy  (1961)

Spring and Fall: To a Young Child
Márgarét, are you grieving
Over Goldengrove unleaving?
Leáves, líke the things of man, you
With your fresh thoughts care for, can you?
Ah!  ás the heart grows older
It will come to such sights colder
By and by, nor spare a sigh
Though worlds of wanwood leafmeal lie;
And yet you wíll weep and know why.
Now no matter, child, the name:
Sórrow's spríngs áre the same.
Nor mouth had, no nor mind, expressed
What heart heard of, ghost guessed:
It ís the blight man was born for,
It is Margaret you mourn for.
by Gerard Manley Hopkins (1880)

(from Microsoft’s Encarta Encyclopedia):

During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the couplet also attracted satirical poets Alexander Pope and
Jonathan Swift.  This relatively new form allowed poets to attack any target with elegant savagery, exposing the faults of a
person, of an institution, or of a concept.  At the same time that it is attacking, the satirical poem can be clever, clear, and to
the point.  If we examine an excerpt from one of Alexander Pope’s satirical works, we can see why he chose the couplet as
the form best suited to his purpose (which in this case was insulting a man referred to in the poem by the fictitious name
Sporus.  Pope (P. in the poem) has written his satirical poem as if it were an epistle, or letter to his friend Dr. Arbuthnot (A. in
the poem):

From Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot
Let Sporus tremble — "What? that thing of silk, [305]
Sporus, that mere white curd of ass's milk?
Satire or sense, alas! can Sporus feel?
Who breaks a Butterfly upon a Wheel?"
Yet let me flap this Bug with gilded wings,
This painted Child of Dirt that stinks and stings; [310]
Whose Buzz the Witty and the Fair annoys,
Yet Wit ne'er tastes, and Beauty ne'er enjoys,
So well-bred Spaniels civilly delight
In mumbling of the Game they dare not bite.
Eternal Smiles his Emptiness betray, [315]
As shallow streams run dimpling all the way.
Whether in florid Impotence he speaks,
And, as the Prompter breathes, the Puppet squeaks;
Or at the Ear of Eve, familiar Toad,
Half Froth, half Venom, spits himself abroad, [320]
In Puns, or Politicks, or Tales, or Lyes,
Or Spite, or Smut, or Rymes, or Blasphemies.
His Wit all see-saw between that and this,
Now high, now low, now Master up, now Miss,
And he himself one vile Antithesis. [325]
Amphibious Thing! that acting either Part,
The trifling Head, or the corrupted Heart!
Fop at the toilet, Flatt'rer at the Board,
Now trips a Lady, and now struts a Lord.
Eve's Tempter thus the rabbins have exprest, [330]
A Cherub's face, a Reptile all the rest;
Beauty that shocks you, Parts that none will trust,
Wit that can creep, and Pride that licks the dust.
by Alexander Pope (1735)

Now that you have seen how the couplet’s form can be used for such witty and stinging verse as “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,”
reexamine the structure of the poem.  Pay careful attention to the punctuation, which will provide cues for you to see that each
line of the couplet is end-stopped, meaning that a grammatical pause occurs at the end of each line.  Now read each couplet
aloud so that you can better grasp how each couplet can stand alone as a complete unit of thought.  For example:

“Eternal smiles his emptiness betray,
As shallow streams run dimpling all the way.”

These two lines complete a sentence and express a complete idea.

Writing in this form gives Pope the opportunity to showcase his ability and discipline.  Because he has shown us how
disciplined and capable he is, we trust Pope when he speaks poorly of Sporus.  In this way, the form Pope has chosen
contributes to the meaning of his words.  To simplify the point even more, if you would like to portray someone as inferior,
you may want to portray himself as superior.  In both the form and content of “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” Pope portrays
himself as clever and talented, while he portrays Sporus as a “painted child of dirt that stinks and stings.”

We can learn still more from this form, which calls for control and order from the poet who uses it.  Each line of “Epistle to
Dr. Arbuthnot” has ten syllables; if you recall the section on meter, you will recognize that each of these couplets is written in
iambic pentameter.  If you look at the punctuation once more, you will see that each line has a pause, or caesura, in it.  In the
last couplet, “Beauty that shocks you, parts that none will trust; / Wit that can creep, and pride that licks the dust,” we can see
that the punctuation indicates a pause between “you” and “parts” in the couplet’s first line and between “creep” and “and” in
its second line.  In each of Pope’s couplets, you will find this kind of grammatical pause.

Note: A couplet that meets these conditions — a complete unit of thought, written in two lines of iambic pentameter, and each
of which contains a grammatical pause — is called a
heroic couplet.

Sometimes, you may find that what you have to say will not fit so neatly into couplets.  Perhaps you do not want to write a
series of short sentences as Pope has done.  Instead, you want to write in longer sentences.  Or perhaps you feel that your
poetic message would be better said in sentences so brief that they do not go on for the two lines needed to make a couplet.

Note: One of the good things about knowing the forms is that you then have the poetic knowledge and license to create your
own couplets, quatrains, etc., and develop your own form and style of poetry.  For example, if you know well the rules of
grammar, then you’ll know well when to break them to suit your poem.

As you will see in the next example, sentences of any length can be used to make couplets.  Each couplet, instead of
containing only one complete unit of thought, may contain either a partial unit of thought or an entire thought unit and part of
another.  The meaning of a phrase continues beyond the end of the line of verse.  This type of flowing couplet has an
unbroken sequence that heroic couplets do not.

Note: a thought that continues from one line onto the next without a pause is called enjambment.

Robert Browning, an English poet from the Victoria era, in his poem “The Last Duchess,” makes use of enjambment.  I have
highlighted in bold one section in particular to show you as an example.

The Last Duchess
That's my last Duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now: Frà Pandolf's hands
Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
Will't please you sit and look at her? I said
"Frà Pandolf" by design, for never read
Strangers like you that pictured countenance,
The depth and passion of its earnest glance,
But to myself they turned (since none puts by
The curtain I have drawn for you, but I)
And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst,
How such a glance came there;
so, not the first
Are you to turn and ask thus. Sir, 'twas not
Her husband's presence only, called that spot
Of joy into the Duchess' cheek: perhaps
Frà Pandolf chanced to say "Her mantle laps
Over my Lady's wrist too much," or "Paint
Must never hope to reproduce the faint
Half-flush that dies along her throat": such stuff
Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough
For calling up that spot of joy. She had
A heart — how shall I say? — too soon made glad,
Too easily impressed; she liked whate'er
She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
Sir, 'twas all one! My favour at her breast,
The dropping of the daylight in the West,
The bough of cherries some officious fool
Broke in the orchard for her, the white mule
She rode with round the terrace — all and each
Would draw from her alike the approving speech,
Or blush, at least. She thanked men, — good! but thanked
Somehow — I know not how — as if she ranked
My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name
With anybody's gift. Who'd stoop to blame
This sort of trifling? Even had you skill
In speech — (which I have not) — to make your will
Quite clear to such an one, and say, "Just this
Or that in you disgusts me; here you miss,
Or there exceed the mark" — and if she let
Herself be lessoned so, nor plainly set
Her wits to yours, forsooth, and made excuse,
--E'en then would be some stooping, and I choose
Never to stoop. Oh sir, she smiled, no doubt,
Whene'er I passed her; but who passed without
Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;
Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands
As if alive. Will't please you rise? We'll meet
The company below, then. I repeat,
The Count your master's known munificence
Is ample warrant that no just pretence
Of mine for dowry will be disallowed;
Though his fair daughter's self, as I avowed
At starting, is my object. Nay, we'll go
Together down, sir. Notice Neptune, though,
Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity,
Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!

You can see right away how Browning’s enjambed couplets differ from the heroic couplets Pope used.  Pope’s couplets
follow the strict rules of the heroic couplet and Browning’s do not.

Note: Browning writes his couplets in a manner that most imitates natural speech.  If he had written his poem using heroic
couplets it would not have the conversational tone, since no one speaks in phrases of uniform length.  Natural speaking
patterns are more random, as Browning has reflected in this poem.  A good poet, whether writing free verse or rhyme, knows
this and creates verses that mimic natural speech.

You have seen examples of how couplets can embrace a variety of moods and viewpoints.  Think about how the poets used
the form of the couplet in various ways to affect and enhance the overall tone of their poems.


  • Which poet used heroic couplets to mock a personal acquaintance, using imagery and metaphor to drive home his point?

  • Which poet wrote to a young girl who felt sad because the trees were losing their colorful foliage before the onset of

  • Which poet used enjambment in a poem that tells of a cruel man talking about a painting of his first wife, whom he has
    had killed, and the dowry he expects to get from the father of his second wife-to-be?

  • Which poet used a first-person point of view and couplets to humorously and coarsely capture nostalgia for the persona’
    s lost beauty and youth?

As you can see, the couplet can be adapted to many uses and functions and that it allows much room for poetic expression.  
As an exercise, you might want to try to test your skill with this form and write a 20-line poem in each of the styles of the four
poets presented here.

Next: The Ballad
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